1982-1985

1982

  • Intel announces the 80286 processor.[1]
  • Kaypro introduces the Kaypro II portable, with 9-inch screen and software included, to compete with the Osborne.[2]
  • The term Internet is first used to describe the international collection of networks that used TCP/IP to communicate with each other.[3]
  • Earliest beginnings of the online service that would become Delphi.

1982 January

Basis 108 (clone of the Apple II Plus) released.

Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 16, with both 68000 and Z-80 processors, 128K RAM, and 8-inch disk drive ($4999).[4]

1982 February

Steve Jobs appears on cover of Time.[5]

1982 March

Apple announces it will take legal action against Asian makers of Apple II clones.[6]

Epson’s MX-80 and MX-100 printers are becoming popular as inexpensive dot-matrix printers.[7]

Franklin Computer Corporation releases the Franklin Ace 1000, a copy of the Apple II Plus, with 64K of RAM built-in.[8]

1982 May

Apple sues Franklin Computer Corporation for patent and copyright infringement in the creation of its Franklin Ace line of computers. The ruling that came from this trial is initially found in favor of Franklin.[9]

1982 June

Apple Computer makes the “Fortune Double 500″ list at number 598.[10]

Applefest ’82 is held again in Boston.

Business Solutions introduces The Incredible Jack, the first integrated software program for the Apple II. It did word processing, personal filing, mailing labels, and had spreadsheet (“Calc”) functions. It ran under DOS 3.3 and worked on the II Plus.[11]

Franklin Ace 100, an Apple II clone, introduced.[12]

1982 August

Commodore 64 released, with a 6510 processor, 64K RAM, 20K ROM with Microsoft BASIC, color and custom sound chips, and serial interface, for $595.[13]

1982 September

Apple stops announcing publicly how many systems it sells per year.[14]

Steve Wozniak holds the first “US Festival“.[15]

1982 October

Apple Dot Matrix Printer ($699), and Apple Letter Quality Printer ($2195) released.[16]

1982 November

Applefest/San Francisco ’82.[17]

Bank Street Writer released by Broderbund Software.[18]

Franklin releases the Ace 1000 Plus, Ace 1100, and ACE 1200 computers.

1982 December

Apple IIc project begins.[19]

Apple throws a “Billion Dollar Party” for its employees to celebrate the milestone of being the first personal computer company to reach a $1 billion annual sales rate.[20]

1983

  • Coleco introduces the Adam computer, a game machine with detached keyboard, cassette interface, and printer, which fails to gain any impact on the home computer market as they had hoped it would.[21]
  • Hewlett-Packard HP150 introduced, with 8088 processor and a touchscreen feature.[22]
  • Western Design Center creates the 65c816, a 16-bit version of the 65c02 that is compatible with most 6502 software.[23]

1983 January

Apple IIe ($1395) and Lisa ($9995) announced at the January 19th stockholders meeting.[24]

Millionth Disk II produced.

QuickFile IIe and Apple Writer IIe released with the Apple IIe.

inCider begins publication.[25]

The ORCA/M DOS 3.3 assembler, written by Mike Westerfield, released by Hayden Software.[26]

Franklin Computer demonstrates the Franklin Ace 1200 at the CP/M ’83 show. It includes a built-in Z80A processor, CP/M card, 128K RAM, an 80-column text card, and a Disk II-compatible drive, all for $2200. [27]

On January 1st, every site connected to ARPANET had to have completed conversion to the use of TCP/IP for interconnection.[28]

The January issue of Time magazine names the computer as its “Man Of The Year” for 1982.[29]

Compaq Portable released, one of the first IBM PC compatible computers sold.[30]

Lotus 1-2-3 released on January 26.[31]

1983 February

Apple UniFile and DuoFile disk drives for the Apple III announced. Also called the Apple 871 drive, it used disks with a capacity of 1702 SOS blocks (which were the same size as ProDOS blocks). They were to sell at $1000 for the UniFile, and $1700 for the DuoFile. The drives were advertised as being ideal for backing up the ProFile 5 MB hard drive for the Apple III. Undoubtedly they didn’t move to the Apple II during the post-Apple III era because the smaller 3.5 inch drives were coming for the Mac, and had the potential of holding 800K of data (almost as much as these) and would cost less.[32]

1983 March

Scholastic Microzine begins publication.

IBM PC-XT introduced.[33]

Lotus 1-2-3 replaces VisiCalc as the best-selling computer program in America.[34]

Radio Shack Model 100 released. Considered by some to be the first laptop computer, it was developed in Japan and marketed in different parts of the world under different names (and slightly different features). With nearly a full-sized keyboard and a 8 line by 40 column LCD display, it could run for several hours on four AA batteries, and featured a word processor (written by Bill Gates), telecommunications program, address book, telephone dialer, and Microsoft BASIC, all in ROM.[35]

General Videotext Corporation first uses the Delphi name for its online service.

1983 April

John Sculley leaves PepsiCo and becomes Chairman of Apple. Mike Markkula becomes Vice-Chairman.[36], [37]

1983 May

Apple makes the “Fortune 500″ list at position 411.[38]

“Kids Can’t Wait” program begins, in which Apple donates 9000 computers to California public schools.[39]

Steve Wozniak holds second (and final) US Festival.[40]

1983 June

Millionth Apple II produced.[41]

Wozniak returns to Apple.[42], [43]

First 16-bit Apple II project (“IIx“) begins.[44], [45]

1983 August

The Third Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals reverses the ruling by a lower court in the copyright and patent infringement case brought by Apple against Franklin Computer. The preliminary judgement against Franklin prohibited them from selling computers using the Apple II ROMs and other software code that they had copied and modified, until the case could come to trial. In making their defense, Franklin had freely admitted they did copy the Apple II ROM, DOS, and several other pieces of software in the creation of its clone computers, and argued that computer code was not covered by copyright law (since it did not exist in a printed form that was readable without the aid of a computer), and therefore could be legally copied. This ruling in favor of Apple set the legal basis for declaring computer software as covered by copyright law.[46], [47]

1983 September

Osborne Computer Corporation files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[48]

1983 October

ProDOS v1.0.

IBM PCjr introduced, but is not available until early 1984.[49]

Due to decreasing sales (and significant price pressure from Commodore computers), Texas Instruments discontinues its TI-99/4A home computer.[50]

Applefest ’83 in San Francisco.

1983 November

Rupert Lissner’s AppleWorks and /// E-Z Pieces introduced.[51]

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.0

A+ begins publication.

Due to the immense popularity of the IBM PC and others like it, pioneering computer companies North Star, Vector Graphic, and Cromemco begin to suffer significant decreases in sales, resulting in layoffs.[52]

Microsoft announces Interface Manager, the product that would eventually become Windows 1.0. The product will not be available, however, until November 1985.[53]

Microsoft Word released (distributed with the November issue of PC World).[54],[55]

1983 December

Apple III Plus announced with a suggested retail price of $2995. It features an interlaced video mode that doubles the screen resolution, a clock/calendar function, repositioned cursor-control keys and a “delete” key, and operating system revisions.[56]

Apple ImageWriter printer introduced ($675), replacing the Apple Dot Matrix Printer.[57]

Apple IIe sells quite well during the holiday season.[58]

1984

  • IBM PC-AT introduced, with 80286 processor, 256K RAM, and a high density disk drive ($5469).[59]
  • Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet laser printer.[60]
  • Lotus introduces Symphony, an integrated package for MS-DOS.[61]
  • Lee’s Diskitis virus appears.

1984 January

ProDOS v1.0.1

Macintosh introduced ($2495).[62], [63]

The famous “1984” commercial that introduces the Macintosh is run during the 1984 Super Bowl.[64], [65]

Lisa becomes Lisa 2. [66], [67]

1984 February

ProDOS v1.0.2

Apple Personal Modem 300 and Personal Modem 1200 introduced.

Peelings II ceases publication.

1984 March

Apple IIx project cancelled.[68]

Rana Systems released the Rana 8086/2, a system that allowed the Apple II to run IBM-compatible programs. It included a co-processor using the 8086 microprocessor, with 256K of RAM, expandable to 512K, and double-sided disk drive, providing 360K per disk.[69]

Commodore’s VIC-20 ceases production.

1984 April

Apple IIc introduced ($1295) at “Apple II Forever” event, along with the Apple Scribe color printer ($299).[70], [71]

Apple III and III Plus discontinued.[72]

1984 May

Broderbund Software announces The Print Shop.[73]

Apple Duodisk floppy disk drive unit introduced for the Apple II ($795); older Disk II drive discontinued.[74]

AppleMouse II released.[75]

Mac System 1.1, Finder 1.1g (System Software 0.1) released, improving disk copy operations, font support, and faster startup.[76]

1984 June

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.1

Apple Color Plotter released ($779).[77]

Apple ImageWriter Wide Carriage version introduced ($749).[78]

1984 July

Commodore buys Amiga Corp.[79]

1984 August

ProDOS v1.1

Basic design work on Mega II chip completed.[80]

Softalk ceases publication, succumbing to bankruptcy.

Softside ceases publication.

IBM PC-AT introduced, with 80286 processor, 256K RAM, and a high-density disk drive ($5469).[81],[82]

1984 September

ProDOS v1.1.1

Apple passes the $1 billion mark for its fiscal year.[83]

Apple Writer II v2.0 released. It was the first version to run under the ProDOS system.[84]

Apple Orchard ceases publication.

Macintosh 512K (“Fat Mac”) introduced.[85]

1984 October

Micro ceases publication.[86]

UpTime disk magazine begins publication.

Discussions about 16-bit Apple II are revived.[87]

1984 November

Two millionth Apple II sold.[88]

Apple buys every page of advertising in the election year issue of Newsweek magazine, to promote the Macintosh and its “Test Drive A Mac” campaign.[89],[90]

First Class Peripherals introduces the Sider, the first low-cost hard drive for the Apple II, offering 10 MB for $695.[91]

1984 December

AppleColor 100 Monitor introduced. It is Apple’s first RGB monitor, with a switch that changes to a monochrome display mode, and a motorized screen tilt feature.

1985

  • Intel introduces the 80386 microprocessor.[92]
  • Commodore introduces the Amiga 1000, with the ability to do multitasking ($1295).[93]
  • Atari 520ST introduced.[94]
  • Toshiba introduces the T1100 laptop.[95]
  • Tandy Model 200 laptop introduced.[96]
  • Aldus PageMaker introduced for Macintosh.[97]

1985 January

Apple’s annual stockholder meeting almost totally ignores the Apple II, despite having its best sales quarter ever, while concentrating on the Macintosh. Leaves the Apple II division demoralized.[98]

Apple LaserWriter laser printer and AppleTalk introduced as part of the Macintosh Office System.[99]

Macintosh XL announced. (It is a refitted Lisa with an internal hard drive).[100]

Open-Apple begins publication.

1985 February

Wozniak leaves Apple to start a new company, CL9.[101]

Wozniak and Jobs receive National Technology Medal from President Reagan.[102]

1985 March

Enhanced Apple IIe introduced.[103]

Sculley asks employees to take a week of vacation and announces that Apple’s manufacturing plants will close for one week, to work off excess inventory.[104]

1985 April

Addison-Wesley Publishing takes over printing of Apple manuals.[105]

Macintosh XL discontinued.[106]

IBM PCjr discontinued.[107]

Mac System 2.0, Finder 4.1 (System Software 0.3, 0.5) are released, offering siginficant improvements to the speed of the Finder, printer selection, and a “MiniFinder” (which was a simple program selector).[108]

Lotus buys Software Arts, and stops sales of VisiCalc.[109]

1985 May

Apple’s ten-year license of Applesoft BASIC from Microsoft is up for renewal in 1987. In exchange for another ten-year license and the right to continue to sell the Apple II computer with Applesoft in ROM, Steve Jobs is forced to give the code for MacBASIC to Microsoft.[110]

Apple reorganizes again, bringing the Apple II and Macintosh product groups together. Steve Jobs is ousted from day-to-day management, and made a chairman with no responsibilities.[111], [112]

Quantum Computer Services starts Quantum Link, an online service for Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 users.

1985 June

Apple lays off 1200 employees and records a loss of $40 million, at that time its first and only quarterly loss as a public company.[113]

Apple UniDisk 5.25 introduced.[114]

1985 July

AppleLink network goes into service (for use by Apple Computer and registered developers only).[115]

1985 September

Apple UniDisk 3.5, Memory Expansion Card, Catalyst introduced.[116]

Apple ImageWriter II introduced ($595). It can print MouseText, and in color.[117]

Apple ColorMonitor IIe and IIc introduced ($399). It displays composite color (not RGB) but can still produce readable 80-column text.[118]

Jobs resigns as chairman of Apple to start a new company, NeXT, Inc. Several Apple employees resign from Apple to join him.[119]

Apple sues Jobs, alleging that he breached his duties as chairman and misappropriated proprietary information.[120]

The Apple II Review begins publication.

1985 October

II Computing begins publication.[121]

General Electric starts GEnie online service. The American Apple Roundtable (AART) for the Apple II begins at the same time.[122]

Franklin Computer returns with the ACE 2000, a new IIc/IIc compatible ($699), with a detachable keyboard, numeric keypad, and graphics characters similar to MouseText.[123]

1985 November

Apple IIc UniDisk 3.5 upgrade announced.[124]

Microsoft Windows 1.0 released.[125]

1985 December

Creative Computing ceases publication.

Interface Age ceases publication.

NOTES

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